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Biblical Calendar 2015


The ‘Biblical’ Calendar is even more complicated than usual in 2015 ...




... but we'll need to check the apostrophe's.



“These are Yahweh's appointed times, holy assemblies,

which you shall proclaim at their appointed time.” (Lev.23:4)


The eight ‘Biblical’ calendars observed by the 7th Day Churches of God (within which there are variations), including the 2015 dates, are shown below.


[0] Hebrew (i.e. Jewish) Calendar - a link is given here, as a few groups keep Passover and/or Pentecost on the Jewish calendar dates, and also non-Biblical Jewish festivals.


[1] Churches of God Hebrew Calendar

The largest Church of God 7th Day (HQ in Denver) and the largest offshoots of the Worldwide Church of God utilize the mathematical framework of the Hebrew calendar, but observe some of God's appointed times on different dates.

As 12 lunar months equal 354 days, a lunar calendar has to add (intercalate’) a 13th month every 2 or 3 years to keep it in line with the solar year. The Hebrew calendar does this in years 3, 6, 8, 11, 14, 17 & 19 of a 19 year cycle.

The calendar year begins at the Molad Emtzai, which in 2015 will be on Sunday, 13th September. The calendar postponement rules do not, however, allow the year to begin on a Sunday, so the Day of Trumpets will be on Monday, 14th September.


[2]
First day of the dark phase of the moon, nearest the March Equinox [00.45, 21st March, Jerusalem time], when the light of the old moon has disappeared.


[3] First day of the dark phase of the moon, following the March Equinox,
when the light of the old moon has disappeared.


[4] Day of the astronomical new moon (conjunction of sun/moon) [11.36, 20th March], nearest the March Equinox [00.45, 21st March, Jerusalem time].


[5] Day of the astronomical new moon (conjunction of sun/moon), [20.57, 18th April],

following the March equinox [00.45, 21st March, Jerusalem time].


For some groups it's the day after the conjunction – i.e. the same day as the Equinox -

assuming Jerusalem time is being utilized.


[6] Evening of the re-appearance of the light of the moon – visible in the brief period between sunset and moonset - nearest the March equinox.


[7] Evening of the re-appearance of the light of the moon – visible in the brief period between sunset and moonset - following the March equinox..


[8] Evening of the re-appearance of the light of the moon – visible in the brief period between sunset and moonset- in the month that the wild barley in Israel will be ready for harvesting by the Sunday after Passover (Leviticus 23:10-12).


The dates below are based on New Moon and Equinox times at Jerusalem, but if other time zones are used, the dates might be a month different. For example, calendar [7] (visible new moon following the Equinox), the new moon will not be sighted from Jerusalem until the evening following the Equinox, so the year will begin on 22nd March. However, some churches in North America go by the first sighting of the new moon anywhere in the world, which could be the previous evening - before the Equinox - if Jerusalem time is used for the Equinox.


The dates for the 3 annual festivals (Exodus 23:14-16)
are printed in green, and the annual holy days are in red.



[1]
[2]
 [3][4]
[5][6]-[8]
New
Year's
Day

Sabbath
21 Mar
Friday
20 Mar
?
Friday
20 Mar

Sunday
19 Apr
il
Sunday
22 Mar

Passover
(previous
evening)

Friday
3 April
Thurs
2 April
 ?Thurs
2 April

Sabbath
2 May

Sabbath
4 April

Festival of
Unleavened
Bread

4-10
April

3-9
April
?
3-9
April

3-9
May

5-11
Apr
il
First Day of
Unleavened
Bread
Sabbath
4 April
Friday
3 April
?
Friday
3 April
Sunday
3 May

Sunday
5 April

Seventh Day
of Unleavened
Bread
Friday
10 April
Thurs
9 April
?
Thurs
9 April

Sabbath
9 May

Sabbath
11 April

Festival of
Firstfruits

(Pentecost)
Sunday
24 May
Sunday
24 May
?
Sunday
24 May
Sunday
21 June

Sunday
24 May
Day of
Trumpets

Monday
14 Sept
Sabbath
12 Sept

?
Sunday
13 Sept

Tuesday
13 Oct

** Tues
15 Sept
Day of
Atonement
Wednes
23 Sept
Monday
21 Sept
?
Tuesday
22 Sept

Thurs
22 Oct

Thurs
24 Sept
Festival of
Tabernacles
28 Sept
- 4 Oct
26 Sept
- 2 Oct
?
27 Sept
- 3 Oct

27 Oct
- 3 Nov

29 Sept
- 5 Oct

First Day of
Tabernacles

Monday
28 Sept
Sabbath
26 Sept
?
Sunday
27 Sept

Tuesday
27 Oct

Tuesday
29 Sept

Eighth Day
Monday
5 Oct

Sabbath
3 Oct

?
Sunday
4 Oct

Tuesday
3 Nov

Tuesday
6 Oct


** New moon first visible possibly the following day.


A Biblical History of the Calendar


And God said, "Let there be lights in the vaulted dome of heaven to separate day from night, and let them be as signs and for appointed times, and for days and years,

And God made two lights, the greater light to rule the day and the smaller light to rule the night, and the stars. (Gen.1:14,16)

(Scriptural quotes from the Lexham English Bible, except where otherwise stated.)


The sun and moon determine the times of our annual appointments with God:


"These are Yahweh's appointed times, holy assemblies, which you shall proclaim at their appointed time." (Lev.23:4)


"This month (chodesh) will be the beginning of months; it will be for you the first of the months of the year." (Exodus 12:2)


"Observe the month (chodesh) of Abib, and you shall keep the Passover to Yahweh your God, for in the month of Abib Yahweh your God brought you out from Egypt by night. (Deut.16:1)


Chodesh (Strong’s H2320) 'the new moon; by implication, a month.'


Each Biblical month begins at the new moon, and the first month of the year is Abib (Nisan), the month of the Passover.


Originally every month was 30 days long – as shown by Noah’s flood, when "the waters prevailed over the earth one hundred and fifty days" (Genesis 7:24), from the seventeenth day of the second month” (7:11) to the seventeenth day of the seventh month” (8:4) – 5 months of 30 days each. Today, a lunar month is either 29 or 30 days, and it is impossible for there to be 5 consecutive months of 30 days each.


Exodus 12:2 and Deuteronomy 16:1 was therefore all the calendar instruction that the Israelites needed – there was no requirement to add a 13th lunar month every 2 or 3 years to align the calendar with the solar year.


Ancient documents confirm that a year comprised 12 months of 30 days each:


At first the astronomers of Babylon recognized a year of 360 days, and the division of a circle into 360 degrees must have indicated the path traversed by the sun each day in its assumed circling of the earth.” (Lectures on the History of Mathematics, Moritz Cantor.)


The Assyrians, like the Babylonians, had a year composed of lunar months .... The calendar assigns to each month thirty full days.” (Reports of the Magicians and Astrologers of Nineveh and Babylon in the British Museum, R. Campbell Thompson.)


A year consists of twelve months. A month consists of 30 days.” (The Arabhatiya of Aryabhata – an ancient Indian work on mathematics and astronomy.)